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RTsafe’s PseudoPatient Makes Brain Radiotherapy Much Safer

(NOTE: We will have a webcast with Dr. Pappas in the near future)

When radiotherapy for cancer patients turns its beam to the brain, every missed target could have serious health repercussions, for instance, the patient could experience sense or speech loss, concentration lapses or even paralysis.

To reduce the chances of off-target effects, Dr. Evangelos Pappas with his partners, medical physics professors, created the Personalized PseudoPatient, the first product of RTsafe, which contributes in enhancing safety and efficiency of radiotherapy treatments for brain tumors than ever before. RTsafe started its business trip from Athens, Greece and now it has also a U.S. office established in San Antonio, Texas. The company employs 18 specialized employers and as non-equity assistance in the framework of Envolve Award Greece project, has received a total of $2.9 million funding. Now it is mature enough for a new funding round that will boost RTsafe’s global expansion.

RTsafe’s product, Personalized PseudoPatient, is a 3D-printed exact anatomical replica of the patient’s head. It is derived from the patient’s anonymous CT scan. It has the same bone structure and external surface as the real patient. The soft tissue is water based. Because it is derived from the patient’s CT scan, it is the closest to the real geometry of the patient.


In fact, it is the only product in the market today that is based on real patient geometry. Moreover, the 3D-printed material and water are bone and brain tissue equivalent materials, respectively, in terms of radiological properties and physical density. There are ion chamber inserts that are placed by RTsafe into the phantom within the planning target volume (i.e., tumor or benign lesion) and the organs-at-risk of the patient. Ion chambers are placed within them by the medical physicist of the radiotherapy department and the deposited dose can be measured.

All the steps of the radiotherapy chain such as set-up, image guidance, treatment delivery are done using the personalized phantom which reacts to radiation exactly like the real patient would. CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography) images of the Personalized PseudoPatient are then spatially co-registered (fused) to the CT images of the real patient in order to verify the accuracy of the image guidance system and algorithms, as well as the positioning procedure.

Last, a dosimetry report is created including qualitative and quantitative information that can be added to the medical record of the patient as patient-specific quality assurance verification. This procedure is a truly End-to-End quality assurance test that can verify the accuracy of the whole radiotherapy chain, from imaging to dose delivery.

Today In: Innovation
RTsafe's PseudoPatient during a radiotherapy testing


The R&D department of the company has already signed almost 70 publications, a fact that makes RTsafe a potential unicorn with a very solid scientific basis. Personalized PseudoPatient is a trademark in Europe and recently received a 510(k) FDA clearance in the U.S. The product is already used by hospitals in Europe for pediatric and adult cases, as for example Hygeia hospital in Athens, Greece. In addition, a research that was completed a year ago with the University of Munich proved that the PseudoPatient product fits with proton therapy, too.

The manufacturing cost of a Personalized PseudoPatient starts from 2500 euros, depending mainly on the country. Dr. Evangelos Pappas says that many patients are willing to pay this sum of money so as to raise the chances for a more successful treatment. As he smiles he adds that if public and private insurance organizations make the brave decision to cover the expenses of  PseudoPatient, then the very next day the company will definitely be one of the next unicorns.

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